Issues related to survey sampling are discussed in several sources, including Salant and Dillman In a probability sample also called "scientific" or "random" sample each member of the target population has a known and non-zero probability of inclusion in the sample. A probability-based survey sample is created by constructing a list of the target population, called the sampling frame , a randomized process for selecting units from the sample frame, called a selection procedure, and a method of contacting selected units to enable them to complete the survey, called a data collection method or mode.
However, in large, disorganized populations simply constructing a suitable sample frame is often a complex and expensive task. Common methods of conducting a probability sample of the household population in the United States are Area Probability Sampling, Random Digit Dial telephone sampling, and more recently, Address-Based Sampling. Within probability sampling, there are specialized techniques such as stratified sampling and cluster sampling that improve the precision or efficiency of the sampling process without altering the fundamental principles of probability sampling.
Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling.
The strata should be mutually exclusive: every element in the population must be assigned to only one stratum. The strata should also be collectively exhaustive: no population element can be excluded. Then methods such as simple random sampling or systematic sampling can be applied within each stratum.
This often improves the representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error. Bias in surveys is undesirable, but often unavoidable. The major types of bias that may occur in the sampling process are:. Many surveys are not based on probability samples, but rather on finding a suitable collection of respondents to complete the survey. Some common examples of non-probability sampling are: . In non-probability samples the relationship between the target population and the survey sample is immeasurable and potential bias is unknowable. Sophisticated users of non-probability survey samples tend to view the survey as an experimental condition, rather than a tool for population measurement, and examine the results for internally consistent relationships.
The other books focus on the statistical theory of survey sampling and require some knowledge of basic statistics, as discussed in the following textbooks:. The historically important books by Deming and Kish remain valuable for insights for social scientists particularly about the U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A sample refers to a group or section of a population from which information is to be obtained Survey samples can be broadly divided into two types: probability samples and super samples. In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget 's "List of Standards for Statistical Surveys" states that federally funded surveys must be performed: selecting samples using generally accepted statistical methods e.
Main article: Sampling bias. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Dorfman, and Richard M. Dillman, and A. How to conduct your own survey. Link, Michael P.
This book provides a comprehensive account of survey sampling theory and methodology which will be suitable for students and researchers across a variety of. by Carl-Erik Särndal (Author), Bengt Swensson (Author), Jan Wretman (Author) & 0 more. Complex Surveys: A Guide to Analysis Using R: A Guide to Analysis Using R by Thomas Lumley Paperback $ "I would recommend that this book be in the office of every survey methodologist.".
Throughout, the emphasis is on statistical ideas rather than advanced mathematics. Each chapter concludes with a range of exercises incorporating the analysis of data from actual finite populations.
As a result, all those concerned with survey methodology or engaged in survey sampling will find this an invaluable and up-to-date coverage of the subject. Country of Publication: US Dimensions cm : Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist.
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Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews "I would recommend that this book be in the office of every survey methodologist.
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Baccini et al. Previous Figure Next Figure. Post Anonymously Name Hidden. Get to Know Us. The Tr -operator is the trace, i. Covers classical topics as well as areas where significant new developments have taken place. In a previous study by Mandallaz it was called pseudo-synthetic estimation.
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