Oil was also used in transportation; first for railroads and later for motor vehicles.
As automobiles became more affordable, demand for oil quickly rose. Since the rise of the automobile industry, oil price, demand, and production have all increased as well. Furthermore, oil shocks have often coincided with recessions , and the government has responded to oil shocks in several ways. Congress was confronted by requests to augment supplies, so a generous depletion allowance was enacted for producers in , which increased investment returns substantially.
This change induced additional exploration activity, and subsequently the discovery of large new oil reservoirs. In the next decade the situation was reversed with prices low and dropping. This resulted in demands for more "orderly" competition and set minimum oil prices. Rather than repealing the previous policies enacted in the s, Congress enacted a price-support system.
Similar cycles have occurred in the s and s. The United States has been the world's largest producer of natural gas since , when it surpassed Russia. US natural gas production achieved new record highs for each year from through Marketed natural gas production in was Because of the greater supply, consumer prices for natural gas are significantly lower in the United States than in Europe and Japan.
Although the United States leads the world in natural gas production, it is only fifth in proved reserves of natural gas, behind Russia, Iran, Qatar, and Turkmenistan. Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, although its use is in decline. The United States is a net exporter of coal. Coal exports, for which Europe is the largest customer, peaked in and have declined since. In , the US exported 7. Coal has been used to generate electricity in the United States since an Edison plant was built in New York City in The long, steady rise of coal-fired generation of electricity shifted to a decline after The decline has been linked to the increased availability of natural gas , decreased consumption,  renewable electricity , and more stringent environmental regulations.
The Environmental Protection Agency has advanced restrictions on coal plants to counteract mercury pollution , smog , and global warming. The US Department of Energy tracks national energy consumption in four broad sectors: industrial, transportation, residential, and commercial. Next in importance is the transportation sector followed by the residential and commercial sectors. Household energy use varies significantly across the United States. Some of the regional differences can be explained by climate. The heavily populated coastal areas of the Pacific states experience generally mild winters and summers, reducing the need for both home heating and air conditioning.
The warm, humid climates of the South Central and South Atlantic regions lead to higher electricity usage, while the cold winters experienced in the Northeast and North Central regions result in much higher consumption of natural gas and heating oil. Other regional differences stem from energy efficiency measures taken at the local and state levels.
California has some of the strictest environmental laws and building codes in the country, leading its per-household energy consumption to be lower than all other states except Hawaii. The land-use decisions of cities and towns also explain some of the regional differences in energy use.
Townhouses are more energy efficient than single-family homes because less heat, for example, is wasted per person.
Similarly, areas with more homes in a compact neighborhood encourage walking, biking and transit, thereby reducing transportation energy use. The United States is the world's second largest producer and consumer of electricity.
Consumption is detailed from the residential, commercial, industrial, and other user communities. Generation is detailed for the major fuel sources of coal , natural gas , nuclear , petroleum , hydro , and the other renewables of wind , wood , other biomass , geothermal , and solar. Changes to the electrical energy fuel mix and other trends are identified. Progress in wind and solar contributing to the energy mix are addressed. Expected changes in the generation environment during the next 5 years are discussed. Consumption was essentially down from with a reduction of This is broken down as:.
In addition to consumption from the electrical grid, the US consumers consumed an estimated additional This will be included in the per-capita data below. The following table shows the yearly US per-capita consumption from to A profile of the electric energy consumption  for is shown in the following graph. The United States has an installed summer electricity generation capacity of 1, The US's renewable sources hydro reported separately are wind, Natural gas electricity generation exceeded generation from coal for the first time in and continued in The following tables summarize the electrical energy generated by fuel source for the United States.
Data from Electric Power Annual  was used throughout this section. Note: Biomass includes wood and wood derived fuel, landfill gas , biogenic municipal solid waste, and other waste biomass. Notes: 1 Gas includes natural gas and other gases. Individual states have very diverse electric generation systems, and their new initiatives to expand their generation base are equally diverse.
J Occup Environ Med. Environ Health Perspect — National and official statistics relating to the environment, rural communities, food and farming. Data before was collected by the National Grid. Welsh Housing Statistics. Parties subject to the rule include: suppliers of fossil fuels or industrial greenhouse gases, manufacturers of vehicles and engines, and facilities that emit 25, metric tons or more per year of GHGs. This will start the "Open" dialog box.
Coupled with consumption disparages, it leads to a mix of "have" and "have not" electric energy states. The following table, derived from data mined from Electric Power Annual,   identifies those states which must import electrical energy from neighboring states to meet their consumption needs. Each state's total electric generation for is compared with the state's consumption, and its share of the system loss and the difference between the generated electric energy and its total consumption including its share of the system loss is the amount of energy it imports.
Chahine, M. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, , On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO 2 , Geophysical Research Letters , 32 , L, doi Chen, P. Dimotakis, X. Jiang, Q. Li, E.
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Import and export data are reported by source and destination. Natural Gas Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publication on. The IEA also releases free monthly data on natural gas for OECD countries and Data service Purchase Natural Gas Information Free overview In fact, natural gas production has been rising since the economic crisis of with . Rest of the OECD p 0 IEA.
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